Survey Of Correctional Processes And Penal Systems – cja492 (3 credits)

This course is a survey to the various components of the correctional system and penal reform within the criminal justice system. It provides an overview of corrections, jails and prisons including their history, the players involved and their roles, and organizations that manage convicted offenders. Other topics that are covered include policy and procedure, sentencing, probation, and rehabilitations of prisoners. The course ends with international perspectives of imprisonment and global correctional systems.

This undergraduate-level course is 5 weeks. This course is available as part of a degree or certificate program. To enroll, speak with an Enrollment Representative.

History and Development of Corrections

  • Identify the forms of punishment most often used in societies throughout the 1700’s.
  • Describe the historical role of the move toward separate prisons for women and juveniles.
  • Describe the rise and the fall of labor in prison.
  • Compare and contrast prisons during and after World War II.
  • Describe the historical role of the Penitentiary ideal.
  • Compare the two contrasting models of American Prisons.

Correctional Systems

  • Describe the jail’s place in corrections and its role throughout history.
  • Analyze jail problems within the U.S.system.
  • Explain the reasons for the growth of state prison systems.
  • Describe the history of state and federal prisons.
  • Differentiate security levels in state and federal prison systems.


  • Analyze the extent and nature of prison violence.
  • Compare the prison population in jails and prisons at the state and federal level.
  • Analyze the evolution and perspectives of prison life.
  • Classify the various profiles of male and female prisoners.
  • Identify how the prison system accommodates special needs prisoners.
  • Evaluate the scope of prisoner rights.

Correctional Policy & Procedures

  • Analyze the principle objectives of punishment.
  • Identify the influence of the prison environment on management and custody for and among state, federal, and private prisons.
  • Describe the methods of secure custody in prison.
  • Discern the trends in corrections officer professionalization and the accreditation movement in corrections.
  • Assess the impact of sentencing on corrections.
  • Define the prison warden’s role today.

Correctional Alternatives

  • Analyze how the origins of rehabilitation have influenced today’s prisons.
  • Critique parole, probation, and mandatory release programs in the correctional process of today.
  • Determine the pros and cons of community corrections.
  • Describe how other nations view the use of imprisonment.

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