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Describe the formation and motion of the Sun, Moon, planets, and other bodies in the universe.
Describe the early evolution of Earth and its atmosphere.
Explain time zones in terms of longitude and the rotation of Earth.
Compare the characteristics of bodies of water.
Analyze the causes and effects of air movements and ocean currents.
Explain the role of the Sun and the oceans in weather, climate, and the water cycle.
Identify the characteristics of mountains, rivers, oceans, and deserts.
Identify the factors that influence the location and intensity of earthquakes and volcanoes.
Explain the effects of plate tectonic motion on climate, geography, and distribution of organisms.
Describe the physical and chemical weathering processes that sculpt the Earth's surface.
Differentiate among different types of soil.
Summarize what scientists have learned about the Earth from fossil records.
Differentiate among different types of rocks and minerals.
Describe the layers of the Earth.