hcs436 | undergraduate


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This course presents an introduction to human pathophysiology. Emphasis is placed on explaining the mechanisms and clinical manifestations associated with disease processes. The course examines cellular activity, organs, and systems that affect the health of the human body.

This undergraduate-level course is 7 This course is available as part of a degree or certificate program. To enroll, speak with an Enrollment Representative.

Course details:

Credits: 3
Continuing education units: XX
Professional development units: XX
Duration: 7

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    Inflammatory and Immune Processes and Conditions

    • Identify four common inflammatory or immune conditions and accompanying clinical manifestations.
    • Identify the major clinical manifestations of HIV infection.
    • Describe the pathogenesis of HIV.
    • Explain the events of the inflammatory response.
    • Explain active and passive immunity.
    • Describe autoimmunity and triggers of the autoimmune response.
    • Describe the five cardinal signs of inflammation.

    The Infectious Process

    • Identify the four types of pathogenic microorganisms.
    • Explain the chain of transmission of microorganisms.
    • Describe the benefits of resident, nonpathogenic flora.


    • Explain the pathogenesis of shock.
    • Identify six types of shock and the accompanying clinical manifestations.

    Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis and Acid-Base Balance

    • Describe the principles of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.
    • Identify two common fluid and electrolyte imbalances and the accompanying clinical manifestations.
    • Identify two common acid-base imbalances and the accompanying clinical manifestations.
    • Describe the principles of acid-base balance.

    Cellular Adaptation and Genetics

    • Describe the structure of DNA and the genetic code.
    • Identify the phases of cellular adaptation.
    • Identify the process of cell differentiation.
    • Describe the major categories of chromosomal abnormalities.
    • Identify two major chromosomal abnormalities and the accompanying clinical manifestations.
    • Explain the interaction between environment and congenital disorders.
    • Explain genetic diagnostics, counseling, and gene therapy.

    The Neoplastic Process and Conditions

    • Compare the characteristics of benign and malignant tumors.
    • Explain the theoretical steps in the development of cancer.
    • Identify cancer warning signs for adults and children.
    • Describe the major treatment modalities for cancer.
    • Explain metastasis and the cancer staging system.
    • Describe the genetic mechanisms of cancer.

    Introduction to Pathophysiology

    • Explain the core concepts of pathophysiology and the etiologic classification of diseases.
    • Identify factors that influence the development of disease and the patterns of disease.
    • Differentiate the three levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary.

    Homeostasis and Stress Adaptation

    • Explain homeostasis and allostasis.
    • Explain the physical and behavioral indicators of high stress levels.
    • Describe the stages of the general adaptation syndrome.
    • Identify the neurohormonal mediators in the GAS.
    • Describe the mechanisms of adaptation, coping, and illness.
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    While widely available, not all programs are available in all locations or in both online and on-campus formats. Please check with a University Enrollment Representative.

    Transferability of credit is at the discretion of the receiving institution. It is the student’s responsibility to confirm whether or not credits earned at University of Phoenix will be accepted by another institution of the student’s choice.