4. C, C# and C++
C, C# and C++ make up a family of computer languages. For many computer science and IT students, back-end coding education starts with C. It is a popular first language because of its simplicity and flexibility.
C languages focus on procedures. Some users find this easier than Java, which is object-oriented. Most back-end programmers learn both C++ and Java, but those who focus on operating systems, databases and data-intensive applications will probably need to be more familiar with the C family.
C# and C++ will remain relevant because they are an integral part of cloud-based systems, which are gaining popularity. Also, C++ works closely with hardware, so it’s the preferred language for those involved in the design and management of embedded systems.
Python is the most popular back-end language, according to both PYPL and Stack Overflow. Thanks to its natural syntax and similarity with other basic back-end languages, it’s one of the most popular choices for beginning students.
Python works on different systems and browsers, so it’s the language of choice for many development projects. In addition to being the most popular language for software development, Python has special applications in finance and machine learning.
Additionally, professionals involved in game design, application development and data science need to know Python.
Structured Query Language (SQL) is a specialized language. It focuses on managing information housed in databases. In addition, it’s most often used to call up specific information. MySQL and related languages are used for a vast majority of data-related programming.
SQL is typically not a first computer language. However, those who work with data, such as database administrators and architects, business intelligence analysts and data scientists, will find it necessary to know. Major companies that rely on and monetize data rely heavily on SQL.
R is the most important language for data analytics. It’s necessary for anyone studying for a data science degree. It focuses on statistical calculations and visualization. Because it’s a more complex language, R is typically not a beginning language except for data science students without previous programming experience.
Golang (Go, for short) is growing in popularity. Stack Overflow found that it was one of the languages programmers were most interested in learning. Why? Go is an efficient language that’s easy to learn. Because it’s lightweight and scalable, it’s also becoming popular among web developers. Big-name companies like Uber, SoundCloud and the BBC use Go. However, it still lags behind C++, Java and Python, so it’s a good candidate if you want to learn a second programming language after mastering one of the other back-end systems.